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想要轻松改造智能开关,如何选择单火线电源很关键!

上期我们介绍旧改(gai)中关(guan)于智(zhi)能开关(guan)的(de)改(gai)造方案(an)时,推荐(jian)了单火线控制方案(an),点击下方图片即可(ke)跳转亚慱(tuan)体育官网(wang)APP在(zai)线下载相关(guan)的(de)文(wen)章阅读:


上期链接-950-383.jpg


那么如何轻松改造出智能开关,选对单火(huo)(huo)线电源很关键。本期我们将讲解单火(huo)(huo)线控制方案的原(yuan)理,这种方案的技术难(nan)点及其解决方案。


图6单火线智能开关.jpg

由于LED和单(dan)火(huo)(huo)线(xian)电(dian)源处于串联关系,则要(yao)求在LED不工作(zuo)的(de)时候(以下(xia)内容简(jian)称:关态(tai)),单(dan)火(huo)(huo)线(xian)电(dian)源的(de)工作(zuo)电(dian)流小(LED无微亮,即无“鬼火(huo)(huo)”),且能(neng)输(shu)出稳定电(dian)压(ya),保(bao)证(zheng)后(hou)端(duan)控制系统正常(chang)(chang)工作(zuo);在LED工作(zuo)的(de)时候(以下(xia)内容简(jian)称:开(kai)态(tai)),单(dan)火(huo)(huo)线(xian)电(dian)源不能(neng)影响LED正常(chang)(chang)工作(zuo)(即无“频闪”),且能(neng)输(shu)出稳定电(dian)压(ya),保(bao)证(zheng)后(hou)端(duan)控制系统正常(chang)(chang)工作(zuo)。


图7.jpg


要点(dian)一:单火线电(dian)源(yuan)采用超低待(dai)机功耗(hao)的降压(ya)电(dian)路


目前多用超低待机(ji)功耗的(de)降压电路,将其市电转化为(wei)设(she)定的(de)输(shu)出电压,以供后端(duan)控(kong)制系统(tong)正常工(gong)作,同时不会导致LED出现“鬼(gui)火”现象。


图8-关态工作原理图.jpg


如(ru)图所示,降(jiang)压(ya)电(dian)路经LED接入零线和火(huo)线,由于(yu)LED内部(bu)等效一(yi)个电(dian)容(rong)并联一(yi)个电(dian)阻负载,相当于(yu)一(yi)个电(dian)阻串联在(zai)母线上,降(jiang)压(ya)电(dian)路正常工作给后端(duan)控制系统供电(dian)。在(zai)关态时,需要重点(dian)关注(zhu)LED是否存(cun)在(zai)“鬼火(huo)”现象(LED微亮)。

“鬼火”现象出现的(de)原(yuan)因为:由(you)于LED与降(jiang)压电(dian)路串(chuan)联(lian)在零(ling)火线之(zhi)间,当降(jiang)压电(dian)路需要的(de)输入电(dian)流(liu)过大,则流(liu)进LED的(de)电(dian)流(liu)同样增大,就会导致LED短暂工(gong)作,出现微亮现象。

针对该问题(ti),市面上已有部分厂家能把单火线电(dian)源的待机功耗做到几个(ge)毫瓦。参考金升阳的非隔(ge)离LSF01-K5BxxSS系列,该产品结合外围(wei)电(dian)路可(ke)满(man)足全球输(shu)入电(dian)压(ya)范围(wei)(85-264VAC),在这输(shu)入工(gong)作电(dian)压(ya)范围(wei)内能维持(chi)超低待机功耗,稳定输(shu)出电(dian)压(ya)5V、12V等,其待机功耗约为(wei)5.2mW。


要点二:关(guan)注单(dan)火线电(dian)源应用电(dian)路的功耗问题(ti)


如(ru)何平衡取电(dian)能力(li)和不能频(pin)闪(shan),常见(jian)的解决方式为有可控(kong)硅(gui)和继电(dian)器(qi)两种(zhong)方案。由(you)于(yu)可控(kong)硅(gui)发(fa)热问题,继电(dian)器(qi)方案目前在市面上(shang)较为主(zhu)(zhu)流,以下主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)讲解继电(dian)器(qi)方案的工作原理(li)。其开(kai)态(tai)的具体工作原理(li)如(ru)图8所示。

1、零火线两端(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压为正弦波,当(dang)交流(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)在正半波时,由于二极管(guan)D2的单(dan)向导电(dian)(dian)(dian)性和(he)MOS管(guan)Q1断开,此(ci)时的电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)流(liu)经(jing)二极管(guan)D1、储能(neng)和(he)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu),使储能(neng)和(he)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo),提(ti)供(gong)稳定输出电(dian)(dian)(dian)压给后(hou)端(duan)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)系统工(gong)(gong)作(zuo),同时在某个设定电(dian)(dian)(dian)压时控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)MOS管(guan)Q1导通。故交流(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)在正半波时,只有(you)一小部分能(neng)量储存下来给后(hou)端(duan)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)系统供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian),剩余能(neng)量通过MOS管(guan)Q1给LED供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)。

2、当(dang)交流电(dian)(dian)(dian)在负(fu)半波时,此时电(dian)(dian)(dian)流通(tong)过LED和(he)二极管D2形成回路(lu),给LED供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)。

图9-开态工作原理图.jpg


可知,单火(huo)线电(dian)源应用时应注(zhu)意两点。

1、LED灯(deng)功(gong)率(lv)不(bu)宜过小,若LED灯(deng)功(gong)率(lv)过小,会导致开(kai)态(tai)取电(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)路无法(fa)储存能(neng)量(liang)给后级电(dian)(dian)路供电(dian)(dian),能(neng)使用的最小LED灯(deng)功(gong)率(lv)需要结合不(bu)同(tong)的电(dian)(dian)路和器件(jian)参数决定(ding);

2、控(kong)制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)工(gong)作功(gong)(gong)(gong)耗不宜过大(da)(da),若控(kong)制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)工(gong)作功(gong)(gong)(gong)耗过大(da)(da),则(ze)会导致关态出现“鬼(gui)火”现象和(he)开态取电(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)异(yi)常,由于(yu)开态取电(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)在参数(shu)确定的情况下,单(dan)个周(zhou)期储存的能量(liang)有限,无(wu)法提供充(chong)足的能量(liang)给工(gong)作功(gong)(gong)(gong)耗过大(da)(da)的控(kong)制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu);若实际(ji)应用(yong)需(xu)要工(gong)作功(gong)(gong)(gong)耗大(da)(da)的控(kong)制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu),则(ze)需(xu)要另外搭建电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)解决(jue)该问题。


单火线的可靠性(xing)、体积(ji)、应用电(dian)路(lu)成为重点关注要素


针对这(zhei)两(liang)点,需考(kao)量(liang)各种应(ying)用(yong)(yong)环境的应(ying)用(yong)(yong)电(dian)路设(she)(she)计(ji)和具(ju)体参数,客户(hu)可(ke)(ke)自行结(jie)合(he)开关盒(he)尺寸进行设(she)(she)计(ji),但需将单火线电(dian)源的可(ke)(ke)靠性、体积(ji)、电(dian)源匹配的应(ying)用(yong)(yong)电(dian)路方(fang)案纳入考(kao)虑。

基于市面上各个厂家的(de)(de)单火(huo)线电源产品的(de)(de)不同,其搭配的(de)(de)外围电路及其电子(zi)元(yuan)器件也并不相同,如模块类(lei)的(de)(de)单火(huo)线电源集成度(du)更高(gao)(gao)、IC类(lei)的(de)(de)单火(huo)线产品对客(ke)户(hu)的(de)(de)自主(zhu)研发(fa)能力(li)要(yao)求(qiu)较高(gao)(gao)。这里以金升阳的(de)(de)LSF01-K5BxxSS系列为例。


图10-金升阳LSF01-K5BXXSS产品特点.jpg


参考市面上不同应(ying)(ying)用端(duan)需求,金升阳结(jie)合LSF-K5BxxSS系列(lie)把相关(guan)应(ying)(ying)用电路方案大致分成两类。


参考方案一,使用磁(ci)保继(ji)电(dian)器作为开(kai)关器件


其磁保继电器应用方(fang)案可支持(chi)(chi)带3W功(gong)率(lv)以(yi)上(shang)LED,并且支持(chi)(chi)一(yi)路(lu)3W功(gong)率(lv)以(yi)上(shang)LED、两(liang)路(lu)3W功(gong)率(lv)以(yi)上(shang)LED,三路(lu)3W功(gong)率(lv)以(yi)上(shang)LED的各种应用需求。

该应用方案的特点(dian):关态(tai)LED无“鬼火”现象,开态(tai)取电能力(li)强(qiang),单火线电源输出(chu)电压稳(wen)定。


参(can)考(kao)方案(an)(an)二(er),超级(ji)电容(rong)方案(an)(an)


后(hou)(hou)端(duan)控制(zhi)系(xi)统为NB-loT等大功率(lv)负载的应用(yong)方案(an)(以下简(jian)称(cheng):超级电(dian)(dian)(dian)容方案(an))。由于(yu)后(hou)(hou)端(duan)控制(zhi)系(xi)统可(ke)能为NB-IoT等大功率(lv)负载,就(jiu)需要在后(hou)(hou)端(duan)控制(zhi)系(xi)统工作时(shi),若单火(huo)线电(dian)(dian)(dian)源处于(yu)关态,LED无“鬼火(huo)”现象,并且供电(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)正(zheng)常;若单火(huo)线电(dian)(dian)(dian)源处于(yu)开态,要求供电(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)正(zheng)常,并且LED无“频闪”现象。

该方(fang)案主要通过对超级(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容/锂(li)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池进行充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)储(chu)能,提供(gong)(gong)稳定(ding)输出(chu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)给后端控制系统工作(zuo)。由(you)于(yu)超级(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容方(fang)案内(nei)部设计了开态和关态充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路,故实际应用(yong)时(shi)无(wu)需(xu)因超级(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容/锂(li)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池无(wu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)导(dao)致更换超级(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容/锂(li)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池,该方(fang)案可长期正常提供(gong)(gong)稳定(ding)输出(chu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)。超级(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容方(fang)案工作(zuo)原(yuan)理图(tu)(tu)见图(tu)(tu)10。


图10-金升阳LSF01-K5BXXSS产品特点.jpg


超(chao)级电(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)方(fang)案(an)(an)的继电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)分为两种:普通继电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)或者磁(ci)保(bao)继电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)。其主要的目的为:若应用要求后端控制(zhi)系(xi)统需要休眠,可选择使(shi)用磁(ci)保(bao)继电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)的超(chao)级电(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)方(fang)案(an)(an);若应用要求后端控制(zhi)系(xi)统无需休眠,可选择使(shi)用普通继电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)的超(chao)级电(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)方(fang)案(an)(an),该方(fang)案(an)(an)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)较使(shi)用磁(ci)保(bao)继电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)的超(chao)级电(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)方(fang)案(an)(an)便宜,并(bing)且(qie)内部已设计出检测LED是否(fou)接入的控制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)路(lu),成(cheng)(cheng)功解(jie)决掉因少接LED的情况下开(kai)启该支(zhi)路(lu)上的继电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi),其余LED存在“鬼(gui)火(huo)”的行业问题。


未来,单火线电(dian)源方案将会成为市场主流方案


目前(qian),随着(zhe)智能(neng)家居的(de)兴(xing)起,单火线的(de)需(xu)求也随之增加。智能(neng)化市场还是一(yi)个新兴(xing)的(de)市场,售后(hou)服(fu)务尤(you)为重要(yao),如果要(yao)选购智能(neng)化产品,一(yi)定要(yao)选择一(yi)个有好(hao)口碑的(de)生产厂(chang)家,让(rang)售后(hou)服(fu)务得到(dao)最大(da)的(de)保障,这样才能(neng)实现(xian)真正(zheng)意义上(shang)的(de)实用(yong)、省心(xin)。


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